Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Discussion 4 Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discussion 4 - Coursework Example However, research on anesthetized patients could avoid all of these issues. For example, if you asked the research question: â€Å"which type of anaesthestic has a longer lag between the end of surgery and the full awakening of the patient?†, you could select patients for your study that would have already been given different types of anaesthetic already. Alternatively, you could select patients and medications such that the change of anaesthetic would not greatly impact the safety of the patient and could therefore be ethically switched for the point of the research. It is unlikely such research would be contaminated by the informed consent of the patients, as they cannot â€Å"will† themselves awake from surgery any earlier, and would be unlikely to want to do so anyway. They would have no connection with the anaesthetic administered and so have no desire to change the results of the medication on their bodies, unlike with a curative or analgesic medication which the y would want to work and so might say that the effects were stronger due to a placebo effect. References YIN, R. K. 2009. Case study research: design and methods, Sage Publications.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Raising Our Native Sons Essay Example for Free

Raising Our Native Sons Essay During the modern era, there was an overwhelming sense of optimism due to the nation’s booming economy. There was a generalization that any citizen could work hard and become successful. However, this was not always the case in American society. Not everyone was given equal opportunity to thrive and succeed. This struggle was expressed in various literary works. In is novel Native Son, Richard Wright uses symbolism and irony to attack race issues and oppression in order to suggest that African Americans should have equal opportunity as whites. Throughout the novel, the protagonist, Bigger Thomas faces persecution and mistreatment simply because of the color of his skin. This racism appears early in the novel when a rat is encountered in his apartment. Bigger’s mother is disgusted by the gross creature she finds wandering in the family’s apartment. She proclaims her disgust and fear of the rat by saying, â€Å"Lord, Lord, have mercy†¦ that sonofabitch could cut your throat† (10). Through this duologue, the readers realize the harsh treatment and attitude the rat is receiving from Bigger’s family. They are scared and afraid of the rat, even though it means no harm and is merely trying to surviving with the living conditions it has been given. This demonstrates the overall racism towards blacks throughout the book as they are treated poorly and set up to fail. Like the rat, they are considered the lowest of the low who scavenge off others to survive. They are treated as a threat that only causes harm and need to be rid of. Also, Bigger faces racism head on at home. When playing with his friends, they â€Å"play white†. This game attempts to imitate the way whites act in society. During this game, Bigger and his friends unknowingly play out the white people has having superior power over the whites. This demonstrates that the racism is engraved into their heads, even at a young age. This sets them up to fail from a young age by starting them off as knowing that they are considered inferior to the white people. As the book continues, Bigger’s story becomes a point of attention in the south side of Chicago. The newspaper reporters are gathered around preparing to write an article on Bigger’s recent crime. They are collaborating with  each other in order to create the best story possible. One of the reporters says, â€Å"I’m slanting to the primitive negro who doesn’t want to be disturbed by white civilization.† The conversation continues with another reporter saying, â€Å"mention his foreign sounding name† (201). The reporters are bouncing ideas off each other in order to write the best story for the readers. They mention how they are going to purposely define Bigger as a member of the African American community. This simple dialogue represents a much larger meaning within the novel. The reporters immediately turn to race in order to demonize Bigger. They call him â€Å"primitive† and point out his name in an attempt to dissociate him from white society. This display of racism conveys the treatment of African Americans as outcasts of mainstream society. In addition to this, the media is only aiding in the continued validity of this stereotype. The more the media portrays blacks as animals and creatures, the more they are attacked by mainstream white society. As a result of this, the blacks are suppressed more and more, causing them to become more and more desperate. This vicious cycle of racism and oppression is ongoing as society feeds off the harsh portrayal of African Americans by the news outlets. Wright brings attention to the overwhelming effect that oppression can have on an individual or group. Bigger is continuously oppressed throughout his life. After attempting to escape from the police, Bigger is captured and brought down to the street from a rooftop. He was dragged down the stairs with his head banging on every step. He found himself lying on his back in the snow, pinned down by his wrists and surrounded by a circle of this faces. The angry crowd shouts at Bigger. Roars from the crowd include, â€Å"Kill ‘im†¦ Lynch ‘im†¦ Kill that ape!† (253). The crowd is angry at the black man who has caused so much trouble to the white folk. When they finally capture him, they all seem to unite as one when shouting insults as if they have has a triumph by holding down this young black man. This unity represented the overpowering superiority of white society over that of the blacks. Although each individual is their own person and saying their own comments, all Bigger sees and hears is an overbearing common force. To Bigger, he does not see the individuality in each white person; he sees them as all members of the same group all with a common goal of suppressing his dreams. In addition to seeing all whites as a blanket of oppression, he is almost shameful of himself when around them.  While sitting in an interview, he sits in Mr. Dalton’s office with him. Bigger enters the room and does not make eye contact. He stands in a corner with his head down, being careful not to make eye contact with Mr. Dalton. Bigger knows the role that he has in society as well as the room. He is careful to not do anything to upset the white man for fear of potential punishment. This shame is built off the fact that he has been repetitively told and taught that he is inferior. This repeated oppression leads Bigger to act differently around white people, further placing him in to the mold of a non-productive member of society. Bigger feels as if he has been able to make very few decisions for himself his entire life. This suppression was put on him right from the start. Once he realizes his fate and is sitting on his cot, he thinks back on his life. He had always lived with the premonition that he would be sentenced to the electric chair. Once this becomes a reality, Bigger feels a sense of freedom that he has never felt before. He wonders to himself why he â€Å"put himself into the shadow of the electric chair only to find out this? Had he been blind all along? But there was no way to tell now. It was too late†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (335). He realizes that he lived his entire life under the shadow of fear of the electric chair. Once he realizes that he is actually doomed for the chair, he assumes that he should live his live with complete freedom with the remaining days he has left. He concludes, however, that it is too late to live with freedom since he wasted all of his previous days under the shadow. This shadow of oppression holds him back from living freely because he knows that his skin color limits his chances to succeed in life. Furthermore, Bigger can make choices that will only dig him deeper into a hole he cannot escape from. After lashing out and committing a murder, Bigger expresses his feelings that he has a sense of power for the first time in his life. By committing this murder, he has broken away from the limitations being placed on him. Although it was negative, he could not be stopped because he was not assumed to be capable of such a crime. This demonstrates that the oppressed are subject to hostility and more likely to lash out due to the poor treatment and lack of individual freedoms. By using irony and symbolism, Richard Wright brings light to the issue of race and oppression in America. He attempts to convey that blacks and white  should be given equal opportunity to succeed. Wright believes that African Americans are placed into a mold of failure, one that they cannot escape. The title â€Å"Native Son† suggests something about the treatment of the generation of young men we are raising in our country. All of our â€Å"Native Sons†, no matter what race, should be treated equally and be given ample opportunity to succeed.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Parents are Teachers. :: essays research papers

Many people think that those who are the best teachers in their life are parents. However, I disagree with that statement. I will give reasons for my point of view. In my opinion, there are many factors that bring us up. First of them are parents, who are the great authority for whole our life. Certainly, this is the parent`s contribution to teach us the rules and main lines of conduct. Thanks to them and the contact, which they try to make between themselves and their child, we know how to be good people. However, there is something that allows us to become aquinted with different situations and the world faster and also more painful. What I mean is life. In my opinion, a person learns the most from their own mistake. The parents give us only the bases for our later development. The life, in turn, teaches us how to behave and react on different situations, which not always are nice and full of positive stress. It helps us to get to known to many situations. During our, sometimes very complicated life we acquire some knowledge, which we are not able to get from books and the Internet. From time to time, it is very hard to accept the situations and troubles, with which we have to cope. But, we can be sure - from our experience - that there will be always time to rest and reconsider our life's decision one more time and then we will have a chance to change something. Furthermore, I claim that the nice method to learn and understand more is to have close friends and try to talk to them about the situations, which are not easy neither for us nor for them. It can give us the opportunity for clearer thinking about the world and all circumstances that meet us. Parents are Teachers. :: essays research papers Many people think that those who are the best teachers in their life are parents. However, I disagree with that statement. I will give reasons for my point of view. In my opinion, there are many factors that bring us up. First of them are parents, who are the great authority for whole our life. Certainly, this is the parent`s contribution to teach us the rules and main lines of conduct. Thanks to them and the contact, which they try to make between themselves and their child, we know how to be good people. However, there is something that allows us to become aquinted with different situations and the world faster and also more painful. What I mean is life. In my opinion, a person learns the most from their own mistake. The parents give us only the bases for our later development. The life, in turn, teaches us how to behave and react on different situations, which not always are nice and full of positive stress. It helps us to get to known to many situations. During our, sometimes very complicated life we acquire some knowledge, which we are not able to get from books and the Internet. From time to time, it is very hard to accept the situations and troubles, with which we have to cope. But, we can be sure - from our experience - that there will be always time to rest and reconsider our life's decision one more time and then we will have a chance to change something. Furthermore, I claim that the nice method to learn and understand more is to have close friends and try to talk to them about the situations, which are not easy neither for us nor for them. It can give us the opportunity for clearer thinking about the world and all circumstances that meet us.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Mr. Bus

4. In March 2006, Tesco announced that it would enter the United States. This represents a departure from its historic strategy of focusing on developing nations. Why do you think Tesco made this decision? How is the U. S. market different from others Tesco has entered? What are the risks here? How do you think Tesco will do? In our opinion, Tesco had done a lot of research before they decide to open in United States market. Tesco believes that each market is unique and requires a different approach. Tesco experience In the United Kingdom has demonstrated that no single format can entirely penetrate a market. That is why the company has developed a range of formats from convenience stores to hypermarkets that it deploys to meet the needs and opportunities it encounters in each country. One of the reasons Tesco enters the United States market is because they want to build a brand for Tesco. Tesco believe brands are the building blocks of lasting relationships with consumers. Tesco want to develop capabilities. A critical part of Tesco’s culture is an intense focus on learning, developing skills, processes and systems, and then sharing them across international markets to increase the chances of success. United State market is different from others Tesco has entered. Accounting for almost 30% of world GDP, the United State is the world’s largest and most demanding market for almost everything from oil to microprocessors to premium coffee. Companies around the world aspire to do business in the United State or at least with United State companies in their home markets. By doing so, they learn much about the latest management practices, they can be closer to the cutting edge of innovation, and they can boost their reputations by supplying well known United States firms. The risk for Tesco decide to open a market in United States is, Tesco moved too fast and made too many wrong assumptions about the United States Market. If the concept was working, an established and well financed retailer like Tesco would be using the economic downturn to drive out weaker United States players. It will be some risk to Tesco if they open a new market in United States, because they will compete with Wal-Mart their biggest competitor in United States. Wal-Mart is the biggest retailer in United States and since Wal-Mart has bought ASDA, Tesco will be struggling to compete with Wal-Mart in United States market. In our opinion Tesco will fail or struggle in the beginning because they have to compete with their biggest competitor Wal-Mart. Most of the customers in United States used to go to Wal-Mart, since that Tesco will be struggle in a beginning. And from our research we found that none of British retailer has succeeded in United States market. But maybe after few months or few years Tesco will be back stronger in United States market and Tesco maybe will be more succeed than Wal-Mart.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Non-Fiction: Useful and Informative

Non-fiction not only has the potential to make the world a better place, it actually does make the world a better place (poor intro, sorry). Non-fiction is everywhere – on the news, in newspapers, in books, and even on the internet. It is very useful and informative. If it was not for non-fiction, we would not know anything about our planet, and the events that are taking place in it. It is undoubted that non-fiction makes the world a better place. Firstly, non-fiction has already helped us evolve to the point that we are at now.So not only does it have the potential to make the world a better place, it has been forever helping us in our ambitions to make the world a better place, and will continue to do so. It has been around forever. In fact, cave paintings from about 32,000 years ago display a man coming home from a successful hunting trip, and they also showed what tools he used, so other people could do so as well. Things like this have been happening throughout history, up to this present day. Even things like science reports have helped many people, in many different says.Additionally, non-fiction is very informative. Not only does it let us know interesting facts, but also keeps you updated about events and affairs that are occurring in our world. Non-fiction is great because not only does it tell us about all this, but it is extremely easy to access. Simply watch the news on TV, buy a newspaper, or go on the internet, and you will be instantly inundated by interesting and useful facts. Finally, non-fiction books are very good for educating children.Non- action teaches kids about culture, historic moments in time, extraordinary people, and many other things. A great example of this is â€Å"Simpson and his Donkey', the story of a man and his donkey, who in World War II in the battlefields of Galileo, saved many lives by transporting wounded soldiers to safe ground. So not only does non-fiction entertain and inform children about historic events, but it teaches them valuable life lessons, which is a small step in making the world a better place.In conclusion, non-fiction has already helped us evolve to where we are at now, so obviously, it not only has the potential to make the world a better place, it does make the world a better place. Simply things like being updated with world events, and teaching children about history, are Just a couple of the many reasons why non- fiction makes the world a better place. So unless all of the known laws of the universe have changed in the past couple of hours, and nobody bothered to tell me, non- fiction definitely makes the world a better place. Non-Fiction: Useful and Informative By Breakfast

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

USM introduces new online MBA program Essays

USM introduces new online MBA program Essays USM introduces new online MBA program Essay USM introduces new online MBA program Essay The University of Southern Mississippi and its College of Business announced their online MBA program that they will offer for the first time. This online MBA program will start in 2015, from January. That time, 2 online MBA programs will be offered. These 2 programs are the MBA program for Global Economy MBA 620 and the program for Analytical Decision Making MBA 610. Besides these MBA courses, 2 more will be available for the Spring semester in 2015. The courses will be available online because this way, students have the chance of completing the assignments and the coursework online as well as in the classroom. Campuses that will offer these hybrid online classes are the Gulf Park Campus in Long Beach and Hattiesburg’s main campus. The MBA director and associate dean, Dr. Beth LaFleur, said that this online program offers the students an opportunity to choose on their own the format in which they want the coursework delivers. They choose this format according to their needs. She also stated that many students have asked for online classes and the MBA programs have grown and developed significantly. The reasons for the students asking this are different, from students who are busy professionals already working and want online courses in order to continue growing their career but also get the degree in time, as well as student who live far from the university and have geographical constraints. LaFleur also thinks that with the development of the MBA programs and the going forward plan will ask for more traditional MBA classes which will be introduced online every semester. This year, the US News and World Report made the rankings for the best 200 business programs that are part-time for 2014 and the MBA program from Southern Mississippi University was on this list. The MBA program currently has around 90 students attending the classes. It has been noticed that every student completes its degree in around 2 years, and also, that every year, around 20 to 25 students graduate from these online MBA programs. The Dean at the College of Business, at the University of Southern Mississippi, Dr. Faye Gilbert, said that this online MBA program at the university is truly a competitive program. According to him, the program gives the students the opportunity to create the courses to match their needs.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Concept of Community and Aggregate Care Essay Example

Concept of Community and Aggregate Care Essay Example Concept of Community and Aggregate Care Paper Concept of Community and Aggregate Care Paper Public health nurses and other care providers face various roles and challenges when working within the community. It is vital that nurses understand the differences between indirect and direct services and aggregate care vs. community based approaches to health care and service delivery. Indirect roles and services that nursing staff provide fall under the category of community based services and typically include assessing patient needs, epidemiological investigation, provision of quality and assurance and public health planning (Stewart, 2004). Within a given community multiple partners become vital to the health and well being of populations served. Aggregate care tends to focus more on individual services and individually appropriate methods of delivery. In many circumstances however community and aggregate based approaches may be considered one in the same. This paper will explore the differences and definition between aggregate and community focused care and delivery of health services to varying populations. Community vs. Aggregate The community includes families, individuals and patients but also nurses, health care providers, doctors and administrators (Smithbattle, Diekemper Drake, 1999). In a community based setting care offered may be more holistically based and driven toward optimizing services to facilitate patient recovery in a comprehensive and inclusive manner (Schnorr, 1999). Other roles that nurses involve themselves with include more focused or aggregate appropriate services (Chase-Ziolek Gruca, 2000). Aggregate health promotion often is considered an innovative approach to nursing services and a method for bringing nursing care into a community (Chase-Ziolek Gruca, 2000; Magilvy Brown, 1997). Almost any environment may become an aggregate where nursing services become directed; any environment, even a church congregation may provide a site where nurses may provide aggregate services (Chase-Ziolek Gruca, 2000). It is important to note in some instances the community may be considered as the aggregate or collection of individuals required community based care and treatment. This may include a particular population, for example a population of underserved clients or the elderly for example, or individuals facing chronic health care conditions (Chase-Ziolek Gruca, 2000). In this situation the community may include a nursing home, worksite or may include an aggregate of people sharing similar demographic circumstances including age, health, religion or something similar. Conclusions Primary care more often resembles aggregate care but can be easily translated into more community-oriented care where the needs of individuals are assessed and planned for within the context of the community. This includes care directed toward the individual but also more comprehensive health services that consider the needs of the family, individuals and other members of the community involved in the care of a patient. The role of nursing staff in this case includes not only identifying and planning for health care priorities and services but also integrating health care and social development among all parties involved, while paying specific attention to the needs of the individual patients (Chase-Ziolek Gruca, 2000). It is important that nurses recognize the need to care for patients in a holistic manner, in a manner that acknowledges the role of varying support figures and members of the patients aggregate community. Bibliography : Chase-Ziolek, M. Gruca, J. (2000). Clients perceptions of distinctive aspects in nursing care received within a congregational setting. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 17(3): 172. Magilvy, J. Brown, N. (1997). Parish nursing: Advanced practice nursing model for healthier communities. Advanced Practice Nursing Quarterly, 2(4): 67-72. Schnorr, M. (1999). Spiritual care giving: A key component of parish nursing. In P. A. Solari-Twadell M. A. McDermott (Eds. ), Parish nursing promoting whole person health with faith communities (pp. 43-53). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Smithbattle, L. Diekemper, M. Drake, M. A. (1999). Articulating the culture and tradition of community health nursing. Public Health Nursing, 16(1): 215-222. Stuart, R. F. (2004). Community health nursing: A challenging career. NSNA The National Student Nurses Association. 2, Jan 2005: nsna. org/career/community. asp

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Basic Tips to Ace Your Biology Class

Basic Tips to Ace Your Biology Class Taking a biology class doesnt have to be overwhelming. If you follow a few simple steps, studying will be less stressful, more productive, and result in better grades. Always read the lecture material before class. This simple step will pay big dividends.Always sit in the front of the class. It minimizes distractions and gives you an opportunity for your professor to know who you are.Use effective study techniques like comparing notes with a friend, not cramming, and making sure to start studying well before exams. Biology Study Tips Always read the lecture material before the classroom lecture. This simple step is surprisingly powerful and effective. By preparing beforehand, your time in the actual lecture will be more productive. The basic material will be fresh in your mind and you will have the opportunity to get any questions answered during the lecture. Biology, like most sciences, is hands-on. Most of us learn best when we are actively participating in a topic. So make sure to pay attention in biology lab sessions and actually perform the experiments. Remember, you wont be graded on your lab partners ability to perform an experiment, but your own.Sit in the front of the class. Simple, yet effective. College students, pay close attention. Youll need recommendations one day, so make sure your professor knows you by name and you arent 1 face in 400.Compare biology notes with a friend. Since much of biology tends to be abstract, have a note buddy. Each day after class compare notes with your buddy and fill in any gaps. Two heads are better than one!Use the lull period between classes to immediately review the biology notes you have just taken.Dont cram! As a rule, you should start studying for biology exams a minimum of two weeks prior to the exam.This tip is very important- stay awake in class. Teachers have observed too many people s noozing (even snoring!) in the middle of class. Osmosis may work for water absorption, but it wont work when it comes time for biology exams. Additional Study Tips Avail yourself of your teachers or professors office hours, review sessions, and similar activities. In these sessions, you are able to get any questions answered directly from the source.Many schools have excellent tutorial programs that are a great resource for getting questions answered. Studying for the AP Bio Exam   Those who wish to gain credit for introductory college level biology courses should consider taking an Advanced Placement Biology course. Students enrolled in the AP Biology course must take the AP Biology exam to gain credit. Most colleges will give credit toward entry level biology courses for students who earn a score of 3 or better on the exam. If taking the AP Biology exam, it is a good idea to use good AP Biology exam prep books and flash cards to be sure that you are prepared to score high on the exam. Key Takeaways Always read the lecture material before class. This simple step will pay big dividends.Always sit in the front of the class. It minimizes distractions and gives you an opportunity for your professor to know who you are.Use effective study techniques like comparing notes with a friend, not cramming, and making sure to start studying well before exams.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Platon's Allegory of the Cave. Summarizy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Platon's Allegory of the Cave. Summarizy - Essay Example But after he escapes from the cave, he becomes able to realize the concrete reality in front of his eye through reasoning that is an essential part of a man’s education. When the escaped prisoner of Plato’s Cave is confronted with the reality of the concrete world, he, first, becomes confounded and distrusts what he sees in front of his eyes, as Plato says, â€Å"When approaches the light, his eye will be dazzled and he will not be able to see anything at all of what are now called realities† (Plato 451). But gradually he finds that the world out of the cave is realer than the world in the cave. Since the prisoner is a human being, he can reason. Therefore his reasoning capability dispels the smear of subjectivity and relativity of view and assigns human mind with a greater objectivity. Plato asserts that reality can be deceptive. Generations after generations, the prisoners live the same naive and ignorant life in the caves, until one of the prisoners starts questioning. This prisoner breaks the chains that bind him and in order to know the real truth, escapes the caves into the mysterious world. In the outside world, the philosopher faces many challenges, as he is not used to the sunlight, to the presence of nature and all its elements around him. A philosopher, in spite of these difficulties, starts exploring this new world to seek reality. He walks on a lonely, unfamiliar path to discover the truth, but does not give up his questioning spirit. At one point, the philosopher thinks of going back to the caves to tell the other prisoners about the reality. To tell them that there is a beautiful world out there, waiting for them and that there is more to life than just the cave and its make-believe reality as showed by the shadows. When the philosopher, shares this newfound knowledge with the other captives of the cave, he deals with the

Friday, October 18, 2019

Industrial and biotechnology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Industrial and biotechnology - Essay Example Its revolution rides on a series of concurrently related advances in three areas: genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics. It is now possible to manipulate genetic information and design products, or to even tweak gene expression and genetic information can be transferred between markedly different groups of organisms. Recombinant DNA technology and molecular manipulations have been exploited to improve the production by increasing titers and yields of microbial processes. Introduction Industrial biotechnology is the application of biotechnology for production and processing of chemicals, materials, pharmaceuticals, and bio-energy with less energy consumption, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, higher yields and reduced waste. It uses enzymes and micro-organisms to environmentally friendly manufacturing of products by maximizing and optimizing already established and utilized biochemical pathways. Industrial biotechnology, also known as white biotechnology, has developed rapidly in t he last several decades and has enormous potential and versatility in manufacturing with higher yield and titer. The industry’s economy i.e. Bioeconomy has made a substantial impact in the world economy, is growing at rate without historical precedence. It has no doubt, revolutionized almost every sector of economy whether, it is agriculture or healthcare or petroleum industry. Today, biotechnology is a major participant in global economy and promise to be a major player in next a couple of decades. According to Steve Burrill, President and CEO of Burrill & Co at BIO (Biotechnology industry organization) conference, May 2010 in Chicago, USA said with his trade mark optimism that â€Å"those in the industry were fortunate to be alive at this time, when all current world problems -- climate change, sustainability, energy security, food production and security, and healthcare reform could be tackled if not solved by biotechnology†. To-day’s world’s economy i s facing a range of environmental, social, and economic challenges, development and deployment of biotechnology tools can provide opportunities for renewed economic growth. No doubt, it has already successfully established in some sectors, is still in its infancy. It is a market reality and has consumer demand, from new innovative approaches with huge promise to lower the carbon footprint. Major Products of Industrial Biotechnology Industrial biotechnology has provided products that have impacted our lives. These products have profoundly changed our lives, environment, and economy. They include industrial and agricultural products, food additives, healthcare products, and biofuels. The development of penicillin fermentation in the 1940s marked the beginning of industrial biotechnology. This resulted in production of a large number of metabolites of commercial importance by fermentation. Primary metabolism inside a living organism involves a cascade of enzyme mediated catabolic, and anabolic reactions which provide biosynthetic intermediates and energy, and convert biosynthetic precursors into essential macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides. It is finely balanced and intermediates are rarely accumulated. By deregulating primary metabolism, overproduction of many primary metabolites has been achieved in the fermentation industry. There is enormous use of biotechnological processes in production of primary and secondary

Organisational Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Organisational Change - Essay Example The current paper elaborates upon only a few of the things that are possible for workforce planning and management managers to initiate organizational changes. Organizational Change ideally is an ongoing phenomenon that ensures that organizations are responsive to the changes in the external environments (Beitler, 2006, pp 7). Environmental changes due to changed business and legal requirements, changing governmental and political situations, change in technology, change in market place and competitors and change in society etc. have a direct impact on the working and performance of an organization. These changes will impact how the products or services of the organization are perceived by the customers and may also impact upon the sales and long term survivability of the organization (Beitler, 2006, pp 9). Internal organizational changes may be spontaneous - as in the case when the organization launches a new product in response to the competitor’s new product, or in case when change is enacted in compensation and leaves policies in response to changes in law or regulations of the country in which the organization is operating. Spontaneous or mandatory changes are not pre-planned and are considered to be one-of actions or changes to meet a current crisis or to take advantage of an existing opportunity. On the other hand, organizations that have a strategic vision and do long term planning are able to predict and prepare for future challenges by enacting a planned organizational change. Such organizations are able to develop an insight about future requirements, future business opportunities or perceive future threats and then spend time and resources in enacting pervasive and lasting changes in the business operations, organizational structure, business planning or manpower planning and trainings . Traditionally, human resource management and workforce management has been viewed

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Home Depot company - Case Analysis and report Study

Home Depot company - Analysis and report - Case Study Example The other external directors include Mark Vadon, Brown J, Albert Carey, Duane Ackeman, Armando Codina, Gregory Brenneman, Helena F and Bonnie Hill. The board is made up of two females and eight males. The average years of the BOD of the company is 58.3 years with ages ranging from 43years to 71years?The ethnicity of the BOD is diverse with one Hispaniac who is Mr. Codina, One black, Ms Hill and Bousbib from France. The rest of the board members are Americans. The board members are highly qualified and all of them have had the expertise and experience of working in other companies in the top management level. The companies they have worked in include; facebook, PepsiCo, UPS and the General Electric. Some of the members of the BOD have their own companies that they are running and are competent enough to work in Home Depot. The education levels of the members are high with the least being a master’s level. Most of the board members have attained a Bachelors and masters in business and economics. A few members have Doctorates in business and one who is Ackerman having a bachelors degree in physics. The universities that the board members have attended for their degrees, Maste r’s and Doctorate are highly recognized in the world for quality education such as Harvard University. The board has been involved in major decision making in the company and they are the ones who give directions on how the company should be run. For example, in 2012, they made a decision of acquiring the Home Systems used in the US. Looking at the compensation that the board members receive, the rates defer for each member. Those board members who are employed in the company are compensated differently from those who are not employed by the company. The compensation is paid off in two forms which include shares and cash payment. In the year 2012, each nonemployee of the board received $280,000. $250,000

Asian Americans V.S. African Americans Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Asian Americans V.S. African Americans - Essay Example With time, these conflicts have intensified as their number keeps on increasing. Economic strength has also greatly enhanced intensity of conflict between these two groups. The battle over who is superior to the other economically seems to intensify as each group try to take control over the other (Andersen, et al 239). Limited economic resources are not enough to cater for everyone thus creating division between those who have and those who do not have. To weaken each other economically, these groups destroy properties that belong to the other group like it was witnessed in 1992 during the ‘Black – Asian’ conflict. In addition, many Asians have made money, by venturing into businesses in the areas occupied by the Africans. Because of anti-black racism that discriminates Africans in America, such as getting loan to start business, many Africans are unable to venture into business. Due to this fact, Africans feel that the Asians are siphoning money from them. Media is another cause, which has been fueling racial conflict between Asians and Africans. Africans are depicted in media as arrogant, gangsters, lazy and poor. On the other hand, Asians are depicted as hardworking, eager to please and opportunistic. Such notions portrayed by media every now and then fuel the rivalry between these two groups (Chang 4). Cultural practices and customs is another root cause of conflict between Asians and Africans in America. Each group has its diverse culture, which it follows and respect. Fear of their culture being dominated or absorbed completely makes the two groups to distance from each other (Takaki 7). A conflict arises as each group try to maintain the benefits of their culture and disrespect cultural practices of the other group. The difference in skin color between Asians and Africans is another cause of conflict between them. Asians compares themselves to white

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Home Depot company - Case Analysis and report Study

Home Depot company - Analysis and report - Case Study Example The other external directors include Mark Vadon, Brown J, Albert Carey, Duane Ackeman, Armando Codina, Gregory Brenneman, Helena F and Bonnie Hill. The board is made up of two females and eight males. The average years of the BOD of the company is 58.3 years with ages ranging from 43years to 71years?The ethnicity of the BOD is diverse with one Hispaniac who is Mr. Codina, One black, Ms Hill and Bousbib from France. The rest of the board members are Americans. The board members are highly qualified and all of them have had the expertise and experience of working in other companies in the top management level. The companies they have worked in include; facebook, PepsiCo, UPS and the General Electric. Some of the members of the BOD have their own companies that they are running and are competent enough to work in Home Depot. The education levels of the members are high with the least being a master’s level. Most of the board members have attained a Bachelors and masters in business and economics. A few members have Doctorates in business and one who is Ackerman having a bachelors degree in physics. The universities that the board members have attended for their degrees, Maste r’s and Doctorate are highly recognized in the world for quality education such as Harvard University. The board has been involved in major decision making in the company and they are the ones who give directions on how the company should be run. For example, in 2012, they made a decision of acquiring the Home Systems used in the US. Looking at the compensation that the board members receive, the rates defer for each member. Those board members who are employed in the company are compensated differently from those who are not employed by the company. The compensation is paid off in two forms which include shares and cash payment. In the year 2012, each nonemployee of the board received $280,000. $250,000

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Discussion Questions Week 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Discussion Questions Week 2 - Essay Example These are some of the most commonly used financial instrument retirement financial plan or portfolio since these investments are considered risk free since they are not affected by economic or financial market cycles, like stocks for example. The time frame of the investments before retirement, the investor’s risk adversity as well as overall investment goals of the individual are the main factors that determine the required rate of return on the principal invested. Stocks and derivatives are the other type financial instruments utilized in a retirement plan. They are not directly affected by time of money, but are subject to fluctuations in economic and market conditions. Therefore they are capable of providing much greater overall level of return, albeit with the appropriate increased level of risk, since your investment is not protected by the issuing bank or the FDIC. In order to best determine the ratio of safe investments versus more speculative ones such as stocks and corporate bonds the investor must decide the portfolio breakdown that best fills their investments goals and acceptable level of risk.. 2) A loan amortization schedule provides a complete timeline of all the payments to be made during the lifetime of the loan contract. It provides the user with a complete breakdown of all the payments, including the amounts to be allocated to principal and interest for each individual monthly payment. It gives the owner to calculate at any time the amount paid towards principal as well as interest at any point during the life of the loan. The amortization schedule could be used to determine interest rate by modifying the cash flow time line equation and solving for the present value interest factor, which would provide you with the loan interest rate. By consulting the PVIF table and looking for the

Monday, October 14, 2019

David Ortan Plc Case Study Essay Example for Free

David Ortan Plc Case Study Essay 1.1.David Orton Plc: A brief overview of merger of Orton group and Costwise David Orton Plc was a result of merger when Orton group, distinguish British Food Retailer Company, acquired Costwise Company in 2005. British CC (competition commission) had reservations at this mighty onset of merger as companies were independently huge retailers already and their reservation was somewhat genuine. The outcome of merger could obviously be a huge monopolize and was evidently aimed at controlling the large market share. The fear laid in commission’s stance that the result of merger will ultimately monopolize certain areas of the region. Nevertheless, it took substantial time to achieve this target as costwise had recognised since very beginning that two companies differ in structure and size therefore it will take quite a while to feel the impact physically. The impression of this merger let staff members of both companies to feel uncertain and uncomfortable, especially of costwise organisation and they feared that each company will be swallowed by the other. Motivational problems related with finance were of major importance to employees of both companies and here too, employees of costwise tended to complain more. The senior management and executive members of costwise company sought to gather and discuss at large weaknesses and strengths of the organisation on realizing that employees’ attitude and perception toward merger could have substantial impact on company’s performance. This meeting cleared company and its employees’ view of the desired merger and future of company was discussed by management personnel (Huczynski, A. Buchanan, D., 2007). 1.2.Motivational state of employees The staff at costwise was more inadequately motivated towards the merger for the most part as capacity is intricately linked with the question of motivation. Some of the employees’ concerns were included salaries issues, intangible rewards, apprehensions, secondary benefits and recognition etc which were being abandoned by the higher management. Employees were also of the view that costwise company didn’t give them a chance to flourish and  grow. They weren’t given deserving opportunities including measures and promotion which otherwise would help them to grow tithing the framework of the organisation. Conversely, management thought that employee’s reduced performance has affected the overall performance of the organisation as a whole. The organisation gave much quality of supervision, interpersonal relations, and efficient administration of regulation and policies of the company. Recognition for outstanding performances, advancement to upper level of tasks and some other general interests of employees were kept low on the other hand. Employees were bound to grow at slow pace as limited or no training programs were carried out by company’s management thus affecting the overall performance of the employees (Mullins, L., 2007). There were, nevertheless some factors which were being appreciated by the employees and which had a direct, progressive affect on employees motivation level. Those factors include sense of interaction, loyalty and trust and chemistry between employees and management which led each party to realise organisational problems occurring within the organisation. The sense of interaction and utmost respect of work were responsible to increase employees’ moral and a practice of trust and loyalty among them could be seen through observation (Kelley, H.H., 1999) 1.3.Attitudes and Perception of the employees In any such situation, there are probable situations where attitudes and perceptions of the associated employees change drastically. One of the obvious attitudes that could be expected from employees is their felling of low self worth. This feeling is probable and any person associated with a company which is going to merge up with another company of twice its size can have it. This circumstance, however, could result in employees’ reduced level of efforts and sometimes deliberately withholding efforts. Poor performance and uncertainty can be suspected in this case which organisations are required to reduce or get ready for the aftermath. Employees’ withdrawal of their commitment to work can seriously damage the stability and competitive advantage it earned during the time therefore managers have to take the responsibility and devise action plan to waive off such situations (Myers, D., 2005) The employees are supposed to have alarming beliefs and questionable attitudes toward the merger and if those attitudes do not get properly managed, it will badly affect the company’s performance. The most questionable attitude in this case could be employee’s perception toward management decisions as it could a sense of uncertainty within them. They become more sensitive to their future as any uncertain thought about company’s decisions and actions could let them thin that their job is at stake. Thus staff turnover is quite probable as no employee could thrive in uncertain work environments. Differences in opinions, either professional or technical could also result in employees’ frustration and developing angry attitude resulted by genuine work complaints (Nelson, D. Quick, J., 2006) 1.4.Resultant effects Resultant effects which such attitudes can have may include employees’ self-centeredness, their insensitivity to other people, their constant attention and affirmation seeking behaviour which could confront to abrupt in some cases. Lack of cooperation, failure to follow regulations and rules at work and absenteeism could be some results and forms of attitudes which costwise company can expect from its employees. It will be of utmost responsibility of new management to reassure the employees of costwise that they are fundamental assets of the organisation and they have to adequately motivate the employees in best possible manner. It is quite obvious that employees will act in circumstances which dictate their perception of situations. In this scenario, motivation will dictate their perception of jobs. It is also probable that employees of any company compare themselves and their positions with their counterparts and feel a sense of inferiority. Supervisory perception could also be expected for example costwise managers will feel uncomfortable to work under supervision of Orton’s management if any such scenario happens. This will only increase the problem for the costwise organisation and it will also account for bad perception of merger in vicinity of strong factors arousing uncertainty among costwise employees (Buchanan, D. Huczynski, A., 2004) Self-perceived insufficiencies in comparison to former Ortan organisation are resultant from reasons of differences in development and capacity and the suspicion that ultimately  results in lack of equity. Competition of resources is another perception that has strong effect on employees’ attitudes of both companies as it will cause discrimination since Ortan employees are in better positions than costwise’ thus they are more likely to obtain benefits and resources such as salary increments and training programs . In this case, employees of costwise will obviously feel inadequately compensated and benefited even before the merger. This threat, either real or illusionary, is suppose to cause deep-rooted problems as all such scenarios are directly related with human psychology (Daus, 1997). 1.5.Main issues faced by senior managers Complex work environments and due to some other demographic and technological changes and innovations, senior managers have now augmented responsibility of supervising staff and employees of any organisation. Obviously the most important task is to increase the employees’ performance thus increasing overall performance of the organisation. In a case where employee’s attitudes toward work have been exacerbated by above mentioned factors and attributes, senior managers have to work hard in order to obtain their objective. They need to get employees back to work with full enthusiasm which will help them in scoring tasks and meeting deadlines. There are those employees who want to be supervised, some of them feel certain insecurities, and some feel company’s decisions as threatening their future. Managers are therefore needed to address such issues within the organisation and propose sustainable solutions (Kanigel, R., 1997) Employees’ unethical behaviour is another serious issue which requires mangers to taken care of. Some employees, who are satisfied by the policies and decisions of the organisation, tend to ignore rules and regulations set by the management. They compromise on the delivery and quality of work thus affecting organisation and its outer world relationships. The challenge of such employees’ commitment and motivation is one difficult task which managers at both organisations have to carry out. This can, however, be solved by taking simple steps which first include assessment of the behaviours and attitudes of such employees and of those factors which are responsible for such behaviours and attitudes. For example, a clear observation of the case study  suggests that employees at both organisations weren’t happy for their salary compensations. They in fact found it unsatisfactory that some employees of some departments are getting higher wages whereas some other deserving staff members have not been compensated by the organisation adequately. They had another concern that organisations failed to address their social, emotional, psychological and esteem concerns. Obviously mangers do have the responsibility to take care of such issues if organisations want to increase the motivation of employees (Kinicki, A. Kreitner, R., 2006) Culture, gender, sexual orientation and religion etc. are dominated by the diverse workforce by whom both organisations operate. This diverse workforce thus engenders complexities and challenges for the management as minds of employees are naturally discriminated. These employees do have strong impact on other staff members thus senior managers are more likely to deal with challenging circumstances. Rewards, appreciation, recognition and especially balancing and equal treatment are such tools which can be highly useful in fighting similar challenges. Employees’ interaction has to be monitored by the management and with advancement of telecommunication; the challenge has become strong and important. They have to devise solutions that effectively control this challenging situation since employee privacy has already been restricted in several sectors (Gentile, M. C., 1996). 2.Critical analysis of the study Effective management of organisational behaviour is somewhat critical and requires the management to effectively examine the sources of motivation, group influence and job design among other things. It needs to define behaviour modification procedures which will help the learner to realise and appreciate the direct connection between organisational behaviour and possible consequences of it. Positive reinforcement is an effective tool which includes administrating sentencing on bad or negative behaviour and rewarding good or positive behaviour. The X and Y theories of Douglas McGregor play vital role in effective management of behaviours. Theory X involves the style of rather authoritarian management which recommends that coercion with help of application of threats upon individual is effective as an average individual detests work. The theory also argues about achievement  of organisational objectives through letting individuals concerned about it as an average individual doesnâ₠¬â„¢t like to have responsibility and rather prefer to be secure at all cost. Participative management theory or Theory Y stipulates that individuals are mainly self-directed thus they will have to take the responsibility. According to Douglas McGregor, The capacity to employ creative thinking and imagination is widely spread throughout individuals thus capacity and intelligence is partly utilised by the industry. Ability to possess responsibility and self-direction drives individuals to obtain organisational objectives (Robinson, G., and K. Dechant, 1997) The above discussed theory can be utilised in developing reward schemes and policies for staff members by rewarding those employees with benefits who perform well and grueling those who show bad behaviour and retain poor performances. By implementing this model, employees at David Orton Plc will be more obliged to work hard and return considerable benefits for the organisation in their quest to rewards, promotions, incentives and other forms of recognitions. Another effective methodology in this regard could be the Content theory which deals mainly n the area of individuals’ requirements and demands. These requirements can be broken down further into their primary requirements such as food, clothing, shelter etc. and their secondary requirements such as desire of power, achievement among colleagues, approval and love etc. It is however critical to locate the influence over behaviour by these requirements. The influence by primary needs is easy to understand and identify but influence by secondary requirements on behaviour varies by certain factors and is difficult o understand. The hierarchy of needs theory by Abraham Maslow tends to explain the requirements which could possibly affect the attitudes and behaviours of individuals working under the organisational framework (Larbi, G., 2006) Self-actualisation is needed to get managed against above mentioned background by investing in an effective, creative and challenging work place environment. Promotions, independence, flexibility and providence of bigger responsibilities are among some factors which can be employed to boost esteem if managed well. Lower level requirements including social, psychological and security requirements can be efficaciously managed by procuring safe working conditions, friendly work atmosphere and reasonable  and suitable work hours. Therefore the theory of Maslow or theory of hierarchy of needs can be applied to the case of merger, David Orton Plc which observes dissatisfaction among its employees over inadequate pay structure, lack of recognition and other social, emotional and psychological wants. This theory can be effectively applied by management by sufficiently increasing employees allowances, rewards, salaries and give them an overall well being in their areas of complaints (Larbi, G., 2006) 3.Conclusion Concluding, organisational behaviour seems to resolve around people’s perception, their power to act feel under organised settings. The organisational complexities occurring within the framework of an organisation need associated management and senior executives to evaluate key behavioral factors which dominate the system. They have to examine the reasons behind such factors and once they succeeded in identification, they got to develop sustainable strategies and plans to tackle organisational behaviour problems. Any solution aiming at increased performance by the employee will result in increased performance of the organisation. For this, management needs to realize employees that their talents are being recognized and to compensate them with adequate resources, pays and secondary benefits so that they could overcome the sense of terrifying uncertainty and work hard for the goodness of their own and the organisation. Ensuring sufficient motivation among employees is one thing but managing this motivation all along is another yet a difficult challenge for the organisation. Strategies aimed at actively fostering the development and growth of the employees will only make sure that their capacity and motivation is developed. An organisation flourishes when management succeeds in developing and establishing a strategy which ensures employees that their received salary is linked with their performance and that their expectations towards their compensation against work done will be adequately rewarded. If employees lost interest in work and what they do at the organisation, nothing could prevent organisation from failure and economic devastation therefore enriching jobs will help greatly in developing employees’ interest in their jobs they will feel enchanted to have something more than a job  which rewards them with a paycheck and it surly is a great thing. To instill such strategies into organisational framework, organisations are needed to assess behaviours and issues related with employees and propose better solutions for them. References Buchanan, D. Huczynski, A. (2004) Organisational Behaviour: An Introductory Text, 5th ed., Harlow: FT/Prentice Hall Daus (1997). Challenges of leading a diverse workforce. Academy of Management Executive, 11, 32–47. Gentile, M. C. (1996). Managerial excellence through diversity, Chicago, IL: Irwin; and Joplin, J. R. W., and C. S. Huczynski, A. Buchanan, D. (2007) Organisational Behaviour: An Introductory Text, 6th ed., Harlow: FT/Prentice Hall Kanigel, R. (1997). The one best way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the enigma of efficiency. New York: Viking. Kelley, H.H. (1999) â€Å"Attribution in Social Interaction.† In Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior. E.E. Jones, et al. Morristown, MJ: General Learning Press. Kinicki, A. Kreitner, R. (2006) Organizational Behavior: key concepts, skills, best practices. 2nd ed. McGraw Hill Larbi, G. (2006). â€Å"Applying the new public management in developing countries,† in Y. Bangura and G. Larbi. Public sector reform in developing countries: capacity challenges to improve services. Basingstroke, Palgrave. Mullins, L. (2007) Management and Organizational Behaviour. 8th ed. FT/Prentice Hall Myers, D. (2005) Social Psychology. 8th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill Nelson, D. Quick, J. (2006) Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Realities Challenges. 5th ed. Thomson South-Western Robinson, G., and K. Dechant (1997). Building a business case for diversity. Academy of Management Executive, 11, 21–31.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Marketing Strategy 4. Recruiting Foster Carers

Marketing Strategy 4. Recruiting Foster Carers More foster carers are needed in the UK today. Official statistics from the Fostering Network indicate that over 10,000 foster families are needed. Another research by Fostering Network found 82% of local authorities saw a rise in the number of children coming into care and needing foster homes in 2009-10. Family foster care provides substitute planned family care for children who cannot be adequately cared at the own home due to various reasons. 4.1 Foster children: The number of children coming into foster care has become overwhelming over the years. But the fact is that it has become very difficult to find the families who are ready to meet the challenges of increasing complex behavioural, emotional needs these children experience. SHORTAGE OF FOSTER HOMES England: 8,200 Scotland: 1,700 Wales: 750 Region Shortage England 8200 Scotland 1700 Wales 750 Source: Fostering Network Website Chart 1a: National Breakdown: Shortage of Foster Homes in England, Scotland and Wales SHORTAGE OF FOSTER HOMES IN ENGLAND North West: 1700 North East: 1300 East: 650 South West: 600 South East: 850 London: 2000 West Midlands: 650 East Midlands: 450 Region Shortage North Wales 1700 North East 1300 East 650 South West 600 South East 850 London 2000 West Midlands 650 East Midlands 450 Source: Fostering Network Website Chart 1b: Regional Breakdown: Shortage of Foster Homes in England 4.2 Motivations for foster carers: Much research has been conducted on this issue as what motivates people to foster. It is very important to understand this key component because this may help to understand their needs and can be used as a tool in the marketing mix to recruit more carer. In 1996, Denby Rindfleisch conducted a research on children and youth services. The research was conducted in order to understand what motivates a person to become a foster carer. Some of the findings were, fulfilling the need for foster homes in the community, enjoying and wanting to help children, providing a companion for an only child and for oneself, increasing family size, obtaining substitute for a child who has died or who has grown and left home, religious reasons and supplementing family income (Denby Rindfleisch, 1996). Based on the findings of this research it is very clear that there are various factors that are involved for a person to become a foster parent. 4.3 Foster carer recruitment: In the recent years, there has been a decline in the number of families able to provide foster care. When a child is identified in need of foster care, the problem of finding placement homes still remains very high. Some of the factors that are related to the shortage of foster carers may be due to the following reasons: Greater difficulty in meeting the increasing complexity needs to become a foster carer Lack of public awareness The poor public image of faster carer. With these issues, it has become difficult to recruit foster carer and has become an important and yet a challenging task. Recruitment of quality foster carer in an on-going demand for the agency. 4.4 Productive approaches 2008 till date: For the past 2 years, the enquiries generated by fostering solutions using the current marketing strategy have increased. Fostering solutions uses different methods of advertising to attract potential carers. These include bill board, bus, community care, exhibition, flyer, internet, job centre, jobs fair, local community booklet, national magazine, newspaper advertisement, passed office, post office, radio, tv, recruitment event, taxi, website, word of mouth, yallow pages etc (Fostering solutions). Over the past few years, the recruitment focus was on the following factors: To recruit carers through using fees, and other allowances. Using messages such as show you care to reach the carers. 4.5 Recruitment outcome: Table 3: FOSTER CARE RECRUITMENT ENQUIRIES SOURCE OF INTEREST BETWEEN 01/09/2009 AND 04/08/2010 SOURCE TOTAL ENQUIRIES Advan 4 Fostering Network 2 Banner 1 Bill board 1 Bus 38 Current carer 8 Flyer 41 Internet 10 Job centre 3 Jobs fair 1 Local community booklet 30 National magazine 2 Newspaper Advertisement 761 Not specified 1 Passed office 78 Radio/TV 28 Recommended 156 Recruitment event 419 Recruitment poster 102 SMS 13 Van 1 Website 1071 Word of mouth 494 Yellow pages 22 TOTAL 3289 Source: FSDocument Out of these, the most successful advertisement medium for fostering solutions has been website with a total of 1071 enquiries followed by newspaper advertisement with a total enquiry of 761, followed by word of mouth with 494 enquiries between 01/09/2209 and 31/08/2010. From the above table it is evident that the total number of enquiries during the period 2009-2010 is 3289, but the no. Of approval are only 126 out of 3289 enquiries. This is just 3.82% of the total enquiry. It is evident that 3289 people are interested to know about the fostering care. But the approval rate is very low. Table 4: FOSTER CARE RECRUITMENT ENQUIRIES SOURCE OF INTEREST BETWEEN 01/09/2008 AND 31/08/2009 SOURCE TOTAL ENQUIRIES Fostering Network 3 Bill board 4 Current carer 1 E-invite 1 Flyer 19 Internet 1 Local community booklet 47 Newspaper Advertisement 591 Not specified 13 Passed office 108 Radio/TV 32 Recommended 173 Recruitment event 168 Recruitment poster 130 Taxi 1 Van 4 Website 1347 Word of mouth 535 Yellow pages 106 TOTAL 3284 Source: FS document The total no. Approval between 01/09/2008 and 31/08.2009 was 163 and total enquiries received during that period was 3284. When Comparing the current year enquiries and approval rate with the previous year (i.e.) recruitment enquiry between 2008 2009 which was 4.96% of the total enquiry, it is clearly evident that there is a decrease in the approval rate when compared with that of the previous year. But we just cannot come to a conclusion that there is a decrease in the approval rate because some of the enquiries may still be in the approval process. Table 5: Conversion rate Year Enquiries Approved Conversion Rate % 2008-2009 3284 163 4.96 2009-2010 3289 126 3.83 Source: FS Document Over the past two years, the conversion rate is found to be reasonably constant with 4.96% in the year 2008-2009 and 3.83% in the 2009-2010. Chart 2: Enquiries in different region From the above chart it can be seen that the number of enquiries received from each region varies to a greater extent. For example the highest number of enquiries was received from the midlands with a total of 396 enquiries. Where as on the contradictory there were lower enquiries from various other regions. The reason for so many enquiries in the midlands is because of the strong advertisement campaign with additional newspaper advertisement. Fostering solutions should focus on all the regions equally. This will help to increase the enquiry from different region. The major problem which is to be considered right now is that the approval rate is very low despite there was 3289 enquiries between 2009-2010. This may be due to various reasons. Advertisement Æ’Â   Enquiries Æ’Â   ROI Æ’Â   Approval With reference to the above given table, when an advertisement is made and when it is able to attract 3343 enquirers who have even the slightest idea of fostering has enquired the agency, it is clear that people are interested to know more about fostering. But somewhere as they move further in the process (i.e.) from enquiry to the next stage, the number gets reduced to a greater extent. This can be viewed as a result due to 2 reasons. There may be a problem in the process from the enquiry stage until the next stage which is the registration of interest. Or The agency is not targeting the right people. In order to identify the problem in the process from the enquiry stage until the ROI, a study maybe conducted as what is going wrong in that process. It is very important to focus on this issue right now because the time and cost involved in marketing is very high. Considering that fact, the marketing strategy maybe of good type, but due to some bottleneck in the process, the marketing strategy may seem to be unsuccessful. 4.6 STRATEGY Objectives: To successfully recruit the carers, the following objectives must be considered to meet the challenges that are associated with the recruitment activities. They are, To recruit carers for different age group To recruit carers for children with disability To recruit a diverse range of carers to place the children to meet their best needs. Recruit carers based on categories long, medium and short term carers. In addition to these objectives to recruit the carer, the fostering solutions should be the best choice for carers. In order to achieve such a position, the following factors plays important role Benefit packages for carer- what fostering solutions can offer for both carer and young people. Competitor awareness versus brand awareness of the agency. Services provided before and after approval. Raising awareness through advertisement that carers are still needed , that fostering solutions values the carers, and to create a sense of feeling that they have made the right decision in selecting fostering solutions. 4.6.1 Plan of action: In order to reach both regional and national audiences, the agency should continue to advertise a multi-layered approach of marketing. The message which the agency tends to convey to its audience must be clear and focused. The agency may use tools ranging from traditional to establishing its own marketing strategy through various opportunities that are available to raise the awareness of the people. The traditional method includes the regular media advertising which the agency is currently involved and it has delivered results. It is now the right time to think of new opportunities of marketing through using the internet media such as web tools like Linked-in, Facebook, twitter, etc. By using both the traditional and new methods, the agency can reach and cover a wide range of people from different regions, which will help to educate the people about the basic awareness and understanding about the need for fostering. This also helps to reach the target audience by giving them the information which they require. 4.6.2 Factors influencing the decision making: There are several factors that influence the decision making of the marketing strategy. These factors help the agency to be alert by keeping them informed about the decisions of the potential carer and the way they react to the recruitment strategies and approaches that are used by the agency. A research maybe conducted in this area so as to find out the following: What ultimately actuated the potential carer to pick up the phone and enquire about the services that are offered by the agency. This can be done through introducing marketing questions in the initial home visits. Checking closely the effectiveness of all the resources that are used in marketing and making sure it is being efficient. Look into the key areas where the potential carers drop out of the process. It is very important to understand this because, this will give an idea as the reasons why they drop out. This will in turn help to influence the potential carers to identify the drop out points. Through identifying the drop out points time and cost that are involved in retaining the potential carers can be kept under good control. 4.6.3 A change in the current communication tools The information that are offered by the current communication tools are limited. That is the current communication tools which is paper based (information pack) gives idea from where the information is obtained. Chart 3 : communication route Enquiry Information Follow Up Resultant Website Phone Information Pack Phone Call Postcards Drop Out Proceed This is the normal route through which the information flows from the agency to the prospective carers. This route does not offer flexibility for the carer. Which means the carers contact type preference, individual decision process are not considered in this route. Moreover, the person making a call to the agency maybe quite intimidating. There should be a change in the current communication routes and channels whereby the routes are open up through which the prospective carer can gather information and be informed about the follow-up and the application process right from registration of interest until the approval. Information Search Enquiry Informed Decision Follow up Resultant Recruitment Stands Newspaper Word of mouth Flyer Website Face to Face contact at event Phone Website Information Pack (Delayed decision) Direct phone and postcard Drop Out Proceed Un-persuaded Un-persuaded Prospecting Proceed or Informed Influencer Participants or Informed Influencer 4.6.4 ENGAGING THE COMMUNITIES: To target the right carer, I suggest increasing the chances of finding successful foster carer through designing a planned strategy to engage the communities in foster care. By involving with the community there is more scope to create awareness and recruit many carers. To come up with such a strategy, it is very important to know the agencys needs and lay down its priorities, thumb rules on how to come up with a specific message for the general public. By engaging with the communities, it helps to inform the public and the potential foster carers about the need for foster care. The ultimate goal of the agency is to increase the number of qualified foster carers. In any business concept, designing an effective marketing strategy is a means of trial and error. For a strategy to be successful, it has to be analyzed from various perspectives before it can be implemented. In such a way, before reaching a community for help in recruiting the foster carer, we have to know in particular the needs of the agency and the ways in which the public might be of help to the agency. By needs of the agency here refers to the big question who is our target customer?. To kick start this process of finding the target customer the following assessment maybe done by the agency. Identifying the foster care population in a community How many foster children are there in the community? Their age group Age group under one year No. Of children (between 1-12) No. Of teenager (between 13-18) No. Of youngsters (over 18) Based on the agencies past experience say for example previous 2-3 years, how many children does the agency expect will require foster care during the next year? The racial composition White Mixed race Asian Black Other Identifying the foster carer population in a community How many qualified foster carers are there in the community Identifying the children in the community Up to what extent the following elements contributed to placement of children in foster care LOW Moderate HIGH Substance abuse Poverty Mental illness of parent(s) Poor parenting skills Incarceration of parents Childrens emotional or behavioral health needs Knowing the needs: After the above mentioned needs assessment is reviewed by the staff, the agency can come to a specific needs conclusion. The next step may be to rank the needs. The rankings should be based on their priorities as shown below Example needs Ranks To provide more adequate support for foster families. 3 To recruit foster parents for teenagers. 1 To provide better training for foster parents so they can handle childrens special needs. To recruit foster parents for teenagers. 2 To educate the public about the impact of welfare reform on children in foster care. Once the needs are prioritized, the next step is to develop a community action plan. This can be done through the following ways 4.6.5 Engaging the wider public : At the national level, the foster care fortnight event is conducted by the Fostering networks helps to engage the wider public and to spread the awareness about the need for fostering and the young people at care. However, this may help to engage the wider public, the major drawbacks in these kinds of events is that the agency does not get the chance to engage directly with the wider public on the assumptions and views to inform how we move ahead to spread the awareness. In order to overcome this problem the agency may preferably engage with the residents from the communities to inform them about the messages and the promotional approaches of the agency through which the awareness of the need for foster care can be increased. This can be done through engaging services in a county wide arts and photography competition. This helps the agency to find out more ways to engage with the communities and encourage them to take part in fostering. The photography competition can be conducted through collecting pictures from different age group categories young people in care, people who have experienced foster care. The competition must be judged by the agency; the winning photography must tour around the county and be visible in libraries and other common places for short period. A separate budget maybe required for this competition. 4.6.6 Working with the mass media: Mass media is the most common and effective medium of advertising. However, for an advertisement to be effective through mass media, it is very essential for the agency to know what kind of information or message should be conveyed to the public. For example in the case of targeted recruitment, the focus is on the families where they can accommodate children and teens with specific needs. In this case community based recruitment would be very effective rather than a general media campaign. However, media campaign may be very effective and most suitable for general outreach. Strategies for getting the message out to the public and spurring the community to take action. 4.6.7 Invite community leaders to help you get the message out: Engaging with community leaders to spread the awareness is one of the best ways to reach the people in a particular community. This is due to the fact that the leaders may approach the public with a message which would be very effective rather than the agency conveying the message by itself. The community leaders may not have the special knowledge about the system of foster care as that of a social worker. However, what they do have is the ability to attract the public and press. It is very advantageous for the agency to form a link of network with the community leaders for they be very sympathetic the cause and would come forward to help the agency. These leaders may be invited to speak at the campaign events and they may be requested to mention about Fostering Solutions in their own events. In such a way the community becomes aware and lot of people might come forward to foster. The main advantage is that a minimal support from one community councillor or a child advocate can quick ly raise the status of the issue. 4.6.8 Using the help of current foster parents: The most effective means of advertising is to get help from the current foster carers to recruit more new foster carers. Gratified foster care parents are the better tool for recruitment and retention. The advantage of Working in with foster parents to increase recruitment will help to improve the retention as well. Foster parents can be of great help in the following ways: Through sharing their personal experiences, the current foster carer may help the new foster carers to explain as what takes to be a good foster carer. This will also give an opportunity for the new foster carers to meet the children in care even before they get placed with a child. The current foster care parents may help the new carers to complete the applications by way of providing pre-service anf training in collaboration with the agency. The current foster carer may act as a middle man between the agency and the prospective foster carer by way of following-up with a phone call or a personal visit. Through engaging with the current foster carers, the new carers may get individualized mentoring and it may in turn be a great motivation for both the new and the current foster carers. 4.6.9 Carer benefit package: Carer benefit package may help to attract more carers. It is great way to communication through which the awareness can be increased. A detailed list of benefits and opportunities maybe listed, this will in turn help the prospective foster carers to take up fostering. The fact is that the more we offer and promote ourselves as the agency, the satisfied and happier will be our carers and are more likely to stay with us. This maybe one of the retention strategy. This strategy helps to gain competitive advantage over the competing agencies because, the carers are very happy with the benefit package. Regardless of whether the benefits are being used by the foster carers or not, the list of available benefits on the website maybe seem real and more tangible. 4.7 Resources In order to implement the above mentioned strategies effectively, resources are very important keys. 4.7.1 Human Resources: In the current organizational structure, the marketing department is very centralized. With the ambition of developing the marketing strategies for both the national and regional level, it is very important to increase the hierarchy level as shown in the above chart. In order to strengthen the regional marketing strategy a new post namely marketing assistant may be appointed region wise. The main work of this job will be to spread the awareness of fostering in their region and attract more carers. They will be reporting directly to the Marketing and public relations manager. The main reason to implement this change in the organization structure is because just having a marketing department at the head office will not work. Division of work is very essential in such cases. But for time being with limited resources, the main challenge is to stay focused in the priorities of the service that are provided by the agency. Chart 4: Organizational Structure Marketing Department. 4.7.2 Financial Resources: To corroborate the current level of enquiries and conversion, it is essential to continue to invest funds in recruiting advertising. A sustainable budget allocation will help the agency to be efficient and effectively plan the time and resources which are very valuable. This will also help to improve response rate, and to reach all communities as well as effectively plan the response resources. For long term planning, a planned annual budgeting will help to place the agency in a better position to cope up with the increasing preferential rates and spends of the promotional activity. There is also a need for the agency to invest in high profiled activities such as web advertising, website development and so on in order to maintain the profile of Fostering Solutions as the agency of choice for the carers. Currently, Fostering solutions uses all feasible media which will enable the agency to touch the hearts and minds of many potential carers and make them aware about the need for fostering. More funds should be invested in the areas of community publications, editorial media and recruitment campaigns. 4.8 Recommendations: Considering the above discussed strategies the following maybe summarized as the strategic recommendations 4.8.1 Short term recommendations: Maintain year round awareness for the need foster carers across England, Scotland, Wales and in communities. As discussed in the strategy using the current carers and their positive stories of children will help to attract more carers and it also helps to retain the existing carers.(refer 4.6.8) -Work with the community leaders to spread the awareness(refer 4.6.7) With reference to the conversion rate issue raised in this report, it is essential for the agency to conduct a study on the effective procedures that are implemented by the agency in the process of responding to enquiries and registration of interest with prospective foster carers. Because, this is where lot of people drop out. So it is essential for the agency to conduct a research and find out the reasons as why the conversion rate is very low. (refer table 5) As discussed in the resources, it is essential for the agency to have dedicated marketing staff at each regional office to make advertising more effective.(refer 4.7.1) With the help of the demographic information and analysis of the community assessment by the agency a better targeting of recruitment and advertising can be achieved. 4.8.2 Long term recommendations: As discussed in the short term recommendations, statistical data on foster carers maybe collected using the community assessment in order to make better recruitment decisions. This will help the agency to have a continued sustainable investment at national and regional level in the recruitment of foster carers. Have ongoing high quality campaigns across England, Scotland and Wales on both national and local level to attract more foster carers which will help to maintain enough carers to meet changing demands The agency should put as much effort in order to retain the foster carers as in recruitment. The agency should work on the factors such as carer benefit package, and other benefits that can improve the retention of foster carers. (refer 4.6.9) Develop a comprehensive foster care recruitment website to promote awareness and interest in fostering and permanent care -Focus should be to improve local capacity through working in close relation with the communities in order to recruit locally

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Intentism - The Resurrection of the Author Essay -- Literature

Since the 1920s, a certain view regarding meaning in art has dominated the Anglo-American universities and became almost dogma. This viewpoint insists that works of art should primarily be understood by how minds receive them rather than by the psychology that created them. Such an understanding of meaning in art essentially relegates the artist to just another interpreter of his or her own artwork. For this reason Roland Barthes famously proclaimed ‘the death of the author’. To refer to the artist’s intention was to naively refer to the unknowable and to place unnecessary limitations on the wealth of possible readings of the artwork. Intention was seen to stifle the work. Adrian Searle in the Guardian once referred to Tony Cragg’s sculptures by enthusing, ‘Finally freed from the artist’s ideas and fantasies of intention, all the conceits that made its existence possible, including the fundamental act of making, the work floats freely, emerging from a kind of blindness’ (1). In contrast, a group of artists have surfaced who share the belief that the author is alive and well and able to communicate their intended meaning to their intended audience with a degree of accuracy sufficient for them to be pioneers in society, helping to shape what will be, rather than merely documenters of society, recording what is and was. We believe that to consider the artist’s role as anything less is to effectively gag the artist, or simply drown the artist’s intended meaning in a cacophony of conflicting interpretations. We have become known as Intentists and we claim that ‘All meaning is simply the imperfect outworking of intention.’ What follows is a brief outline of this position and its importance. A: What is intention? At the hear... ...ate Gallery Pub Ltd), 108 2) Mele, Alfred R. 1992. Springs of Action (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 141 3) See Sextus Empiricus’ story of the happy accident of the artist Apelles of Kolophon in the Preface of Livingston, Paisley. 2005. Art and Intention (Oxford: Oxford University Press), vii 4) Furlon, William (editor). 1995. The Dynamics of Now, (Tate Gallery Pub Ltd) 95 5) Ibid 6) Ibid, 152 7) Iseminger, Gary (editor). 1992. Intention and Interpretation (Temple University Press), 25-27 8) Ibid 25 9) Ibid 26 10) Gadamer, Hand-Georg. 1960. Truth and Method (Tubingen), 299-300 11) Livingston, Paisley. 2005. Art and Intention (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 93 12) Hirsch, Edward D Jr. 1967. Validity in Interpretation (New Haven: Yale University Press) 13) Iseminger, Gary (editor). 1992. Intention and Interpretation (Temple University Press), 26-27

Friday, October 11, 2019

Crimes and Misdemeanors Essay

For the past fifty years, director and actor Woody Allen has evoked much laughter from his neurotic-style comedies. Less recognized, however, is his fascinating ability in utilizing both his stunning, humorous wit along with several philosophical concepts. Such a combination creates an engaged and thoroughly entertained audience, as well as a mentally-stimulated one. In his movie â€Å"Crimes and Misdemeanors,† the philosophical concepts Allen touches upon deal with ethical and moral issues. What does ‘do the right thing’ really entail; why not do the opposite if it leads to one’s personal success? In the absence of a God, who’s to say whether the choices we make are right or wrong? Answering these questions say much about the way one sees the world. This movie investigates such questions by intertwining two separate, parallel plots: the tragic story of Judah, and the comedic story led by Cliff Stern . There are two key moral positions that underlie the entire movie: Those with faith in God perceive the world as morally structured, forgiving, and full of true meaning. Those who do not believe in a God see the world as empty, pitiless, and devoid of meaning. After watching this movie for the third time, a consistent metaphor that integrates these positions revealed itself. Throughout the movie, nearly every scene visually and verbally involves the use of ‘eyes’ to symbolize our perceptions on how we see the world, and how people do not see themselves and events the way others may see it. Although there are several elements, characters, and events worthy of an individual analysis, this paper will concentrate on how Allen’s film represents eyes to unveil hidden truths. To illustrate the use of ‘eyes’ in this film I will investigate its role in the lives of Judah, Cliff, and Rabbi Ben. Keep in mind that all four of these characters each wear over-emphasized glasses. Within the first few minutes of the film, Judah reveals he makes his living as an ophthalmologist. Judah’s occupation certainly comes as no coincidence, for it stems from his religious past. During a speech at a charity dinner, Judah relates to the audience this past: â€Å"I’m a man of science. I’ve always been a skeptic, but I was raised quite religiously, and while I challenged it even as a child, some of that feeling must have stuck with me. † He continues to say that his father once told him, â€Å"the eyes of God are on us always. Although he revokes his religious background, it’s apparent that this ‘feeling that stuck with him’ manifested itself in his occupation; in order to fill a void which religion would fill. With the removal of â€Å"God’s eyes,† Judah made the, perhaps unconscious, decision to take up a job that deals with seei ng†¦ thus assuming the role of God. He rhetorically asks the audience, â€Å"What were God’s eyes like? Unimaginably penetrating, intense eyes I assumed. † Judah’s relationship with his father left him with a sense of awe and fear of these â€Å"intense eyes† that could see past his deceitful acts. So, his concern with vision arises from his compulsion to hide the blemishes of his character. It’s evident that Judah sees himself as a moral man: wealth, success, and a valuable role in the community are reinforced by images of him wearing a tuxedo as he’s accompanied by his family. This â€Å"family man† portrayal describes Judah’s external appearance. Wouldn’t a man blessed with this amount of success persisted in doing â€Å"the right thing† all along? Judah’s morality is put into question once his mistress sends a letter to his wife, exposing Judah’s devious actions (Judah destroys the letter immediately before his wife sees it). Judah saw no troubles in fooling around, for his efforts made him happy and he was never caught (there is no God to see his immoral choices). The letter breaks Judah’s illusions of this fantasy world he’s been living. Judah says â€Å"it’s as if I’ve awaken from a dream,† to reinforce how he must now face reality. Interestingly enough, at this point Judah now wears a pair of glasses, when forced to look at his values and actions from a different perspective. So in Judah’s case, these glasses represent his inability to see the true nature of the world, which has now directly confronted him. Judah’s brother, Jack (who sets up for the mistress to be killed), accuses him of not â€Å"living in the real world,† due to his state of wealth and privilege. Judah’s success composes this blindness he has of the â€Å"real world. † Jack, defined as pragmatic and amoral, lives in this apparent â€Å"real world† for he represents honesty and a lack of illusions even though he exemplifies unjustness. Essentially Judah and Jack adhere to the same moral, or immoral, compass. However Jack acknowledges his lack of morality, while Judah’s success leads him to falsely believe he embodies ‘rightness. Jack represents the dark and immoral side of Judah’s consciousness. With his mistress unable to listen to â€Å"logic† and â€Å"reason† Judah states, â€Å"I manage to keep free of that real world, but suddenly it’s found me. † Darkness overpowering Judah’s conscious, results in the death of his mistress. Post-murder, guilt plagues Judah, leading him to consider confessing. The camera consistently focuses on his eyes, showing the audience Judah’s shock and dismay towards his own behavior. Afflicted with hallucinations of his religious past, he repeatedly hears the words from his father: â€Å"God sees all. Latent, unconscious beliefs in God awaken in Judah’s mind. In reference to the murder he says, â€Å"God have mercy on us, Jack† and â€Å"Without God, the world is a cesspool. † Judah’s guilt originates from his fear of getting caught as well as this â€Å"moral code† which has now been violated. Fear of â€Å"God’s eyes† or perhaps even Judahs father’s law dominate his mind as if they watch his every move, exposing his actions. The film shows Judah consistently looking left and right implying that â€Å"something† watches him. A final blatantly philosophical dialogue takes place as Judah visits his childhood house and envisions a past debate his family members had over morality. According to his father’s religious view, he will be punished even if he is not caught since â€Å"that which originates from a black deed will blossom in a foul manner. † This crime that Judah committed will some way or another be punished. As an opposition, his Aunt Mae provides the model which the film follows: â€Å"I say if he can do it and get away with it, and he chooses not to be bothered by the ethics, then he’s home free. Aunt Mae also encourages Judah’s father to â€Å"open his eyes,† disclosing the fact that six million Jews were murdered and Hitler got away with it. We all want to believe that we live in a perfect, moral world where justice is served, however this does not exhibit how the world really is. In fact, Judah proves his Aunt operates as a sort of Oracle. After a period of fear and irritability, Judah proceeds to live his happy life. Guilt passes, and the momentary belief in God grows quiet once more. One morning Judah opens his eyes and sees his conscious is guilt-free and the â€Å"crisis is lifted. Judah comes to ‘see’ that God is not watching, and in a world devoid of divine presence, all acts are permissible†¦ including murder. In Judah’s world, the â€Å"eyes of God† are attributed to himself. That determines his internal appearance. The second story line deals with a self-styled, passionate yet unsuccessful idealist filmmaker named Cliff (played by Woody Allen). In the opening of this narrative strand, Cliff delivers his beliefs on his world view to his niece after watching a movie: â€Å"Don’t listen to what your teachers tell you, just see what they look like, that’s how you’ll know what life’s really about. Cliff asserts that observing and questioning another’s motives elic its their values and true nature. Just listening and accepting the superficial, external appearance leads to a false impression and ignorance. To shatter this external appearance, Cliff uses film as a tool for exposing these lesser known ‘realities. ‘ In fact, ‘eyes’ are symbolized again through filmmaking as a method for displaying new perspectives. Relating to Judah’s world, by the film’s eye the audience maintains the ability to see past his artifice which other characters are blind to. Furthermore, in a movie that deals with God and seeing, the audience acquires those â€Å"God-like eyes† that see all; that Judah feared. In Cliff’s case, he uses film to exploit his foil, Lester. Cliff directs a documentary about television producer Lester (described as rich, famous, and successful), for a program entitled â€Å"Creative Minds. † Contrary to others, Cliff perceives Lester as shallow, pompous, and sub-mental. Lester supports his egotism by referring to his â€Å"closet full of Emmys† as an item that symbolizes material success. Cliff only directs the movie to gain financial support for his documentary about a philosopher named Professor Levy. Cliff describes his philosophical film as more substantial: â€Å"See no limos, no bimbos, no awards. This guy is just a thinker, an intellect. † The tension between Lester comes as a classic ‘flash vs. substance’ debate. Cliff prefers to create films that mentally-stimulate, rather than mindlessly entertain his audience. He wants to film quality films that matter, and have potential to change the world. Lester sees such ambitions as ‘grandiose fantasies’, favoring frivolous material that will sell and further his fame, usually synonymous with crass commercialism. In the real world, high aspirations do not pay off, you’ve got to deliver. All delivery, no essence. Flash and delivery mask our stigmas and flaws. Creativity sacrificed in return for power and money. Other characters in the film fail to see Lester’s pomposity, because they have been seduced and falsely impressed by his charisma and wealth. Cliff receives a minor victory over Lester when they preview a few scenes Cliff pulled together for the documentary. This short film reveals Lester seducing a mindless woman, compares him to Mussolini, and has his voice synced over an image of a donkey. The woman represents his shallowness, the donkey as a literal ‘jackass’, and the comparison to Mussolini represents Lester’s narcissism and hunger for power. The fact that Lester’s superficiality rewards him with power ticks Cliff off most, perhaps with a dose of jealousy. As he watches himself from this new perspective, a faint glimmer and widening of Lester’s eye acknowledges the fact that he ‘may not be perfect’ as Lester likes to put it. However he abandons the thought that he ‘deadens the sensibilities of a great democracy’ as Cliff loves to point out. In other words, this documentary was supposed to create a ‘profile of a creative mind’, however Cliff painted a picture of what he saw instead. Lester refuses to fully accept these notions, affirming this view does not represent the ‘real me’. Cliff questioned Lester’s values, and this contradiction of perceptions lead to Cliff’s removal from the film. As a sub-plot, both Cliff and Lester compete over an associate woman producer, Halley. In Cliff’s world, he believes he will truly win the girl over due to his values. The film hints at this: it shows Halley shrugging off Lester, making sarcastic comments towards him, and taking interest in Cliff’s side projects. At first, both Cliff and Halley see Lester through the same lens that the preview portrayed him as. During a wedding reception towards the end of the movie, the camera does an excellent job in illustrating how the opposite happens. A slight glimpse reveals Lester and Halley embracing each other, implying they are together. Without any words spoken, the camera depicts what Cliff thinks by focusing intensely on his eyes. A couple of things can be taken from this: Halley up until this point appears with glasses on. With Lester, she removes her glasses. Halley abandons her glasses, only after she abandons her values. With virtue thrown out the window, she nows sees the once pompous and arrogant Lester as ‘endearing’. Camera focusing on Cliff’s eyes suggests he is in utter disbelief. In his eyes, Cliff deserved the girl, for he promoted grander values. In his world, such atrocities do not occur. He utters a small phrase, â€Å"This is my worst fear realized. † The fear that the world does not operate in accordance with his inner-values. In the end, Cliff’s espoused idealism led to his ultimate downfall. Clinging to beliefs creates an illusion, an illusion that may betray us. A rabbi named Ben links together both plots. Morality, faith, and forgiveness make up Ben’s character (even Judah and Cliff refer to Ben as a ‘saint’). Ben embodies all the qualities that Judah’s father possessed, they both adhere to religious beliefs. At his core, Ben conceives â€Å"Without moral structure, there’s no basis to know how to live! † Ben relies upon objective, absolute rules to guide his behavior. Contrary to Jack, Ben represents the latent religious beliefs of Judah’s unconscious. However, Ben’s vision appears to deteriorate as the movie progresses. Ben literally goes blind in the movie. Figuratively Ben’s blindness foreshadows the coming ‘sins’ that occur, and signifies the immoral atmosphere that underlies this movie. Also, Ben’s blindness generalizes the fact that all religions are blind to the cruelty and corruption of the world. When Ben asks Judah if his issues with the mistress were resolved, he bluffs saying the woman eventually ‘gave up and moved away’. Ben responds â€Å"You got lucky! † Completely oblivious and blind to the actual murder, Ben trusts Judah’s word. As Judah’s success led to his blindness, Ben’s religion does as well. Judah points out Ben resides in the â€Å"kingdom of heaven. † In order to have faith one must disregard the negative, reinforce the positive, and believe we live in a just world. Through the lens of this â€Å"kingdom of heaven† justice is served. By dimming the lights on sinful acts, one can happily live about their life in sheltered ignorance. As the film comes to an end, a scene presents Ben sporting a pair of black glasses. These glasses indicate Ben has gone fully blind, and so has all moralities in this movie. By the end of the film, God abandoned all of society. The universe is indifferent to our actions: an apparent depiction of how the real world truly exists. â€Å"Crimes and Misdemeanors† illustrates an existential truth. We all have fantasies, stories we tell ourselves about our expectations of the world. These expectations usually fail to correlate with the way the world really is. We live in an imperfect and Godless world. The murderer prospers, the virtuous man fails, and the superficial succeed. The good guy does not always get the girl. Open your eyes, realize that all meaning is man-made. Realize that without an objective law mankind is free. Free to choose how we develop ourselves in this world, and where we look to for meaning. The individual is the arbiter on how to live. Our actions define us, not our dogmas. In the words of Professor Levy: â€Å"We define ourselves by the choices we make. We are, in fact, the sum total of our choices. Events unfold so unpredictably, so unfairly. It is only we, with your capacity to love that gives meaning to the indifferent universe. †